Sunday, June 29, 2014

C++ Programming Tutorial ( Part 6 )

Fundamental data types

When programming, we store the variables in our computer's memory, but the computer has to know what kind of
data we want to store in them, since it is not going to occupy the same amount of memory to store a simple
number than to store a single letter or a large number, and they are not going to be interpreted the same way.

The memory in our computers is organized in bytes. A byte is the minimum amount of memory that we can
manage in C++. A byte can store a relatively small amount of data: one single character or a small integer
(generally an integer between 0 and 255). In addition, the computer can manipulate more complex data types that
come from grouping several bytes, such as long numbers or non-integer numbers. 
Next you have a summary of the basic fundamental data types in C++, as well as the range of values that can be

represented with each one:

* The values of the columns Size and Range depend on the system the program is compiled for. The values
shown above are those found on most 32-bit systems. But for other systems, the general specification is that int has the natural size suggested by the system architecture (one "word") and the four integer types char, short, int and long must each one be at least as large as the one preceding it, with char being always 1 byte in size.

The same applies to the floating point types float, double and long double, where each one must provide at
least as much precision as the preceding one.